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Great Courts (gcourts-man.txt)

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                GREAT COURTS/PRO TENNIS TOUR

Typed in by THE TWINS of TRILOGY. Edited by PARASITE.


THE ORIGINS OF TENNIS
 Some believe that tennis was practiced all the way back in the time of
Homer and Ovid. There are also accounts of a similar game played by the
Toltec Indians of Mexico. Frescos in Egypt, Spain, and Renaissance
Italy depict a game much like that of tennis. In addition, several
books in the 16th century were written about games akin to tennis. But
of all the educated guesses, one of the more popular beliefs is that
tennis has its origins in the late 19th century in Great Britain.

 Present day tennis most likely has its origins in the "Jeu de Paume",
which was practiced at the King's Court in the 13th century. Tennis
spread throughout Europe, finding great support in Great Britain. At
the foot of the Windsor Castle ramparts, and in the majority of royal
British residences, a "tennys courte" could always be found. This
trend
was credited to Henry VII, who had four courts built on the land
surrounding Whitehall Palace. The word "tenetz", which was cried out
by
the player upon serving the ball to his opponent, eventually gained
acceptance throughout Europe and became the deciding factor in the
unification of the "Jeu de Paume".

  The First Tournament at Wimbledon.
 The gentlemen of the All England Croquet Club of Wimbledon, founded in
1869, decided to offer tennis to their members. In 1877, after having
expelled the croquet players from the managing committee, the directors
of the club decided to organize a tennis competition open to all its
members. The Field magazine sponsored the event, with the prize of a
silver cup worth 25 guineas. Twenty-two competitors signed up.
 Spencer Gore, who was already a master in the art of intimidation, won
the first Wimbledon tournament.

 In 1883, the dimension of the tennis court were esablished and have
not changed since then. The first international match at Wimbledon took
place in July 1883 when the Clark brothers, representing the U.S.,
competed against the Renshaw twins, representing Great Britain.

  The Origins of the Scoring System.
 Jean Gosselin, a grammarian, wrote in 1579 that the winning score of
60 came from a sexagesimal system widlely used in the 14th and 15th
centuries for the weight and values of coins. Sixty was a reference
number, just as 100 is in the  metric system. One-sixth of a circle is
60 degrees, with each degree comprised of 60 minutes, and each minute
60 seconds. In order to win the game, the player used the dial of a
clock as a reference: 15,30, and 45 (45 was soon simplified to 40 for
linguistic reasons).

 A tie score upon attaining the third point was expressed as "a deux"
became "deuce". As for the word "love", which represents a
score of
zero, there exist several explanations. Some believe it comes from the
French word "l'ocuf", which has more or less the same shape as a
zero.
Another popular belief is that this expression came from the
transformation of the word "love", synonymous with
"nothing"; hence the
popular expressions, "for the love of the game".

USING PRO TENNIS TOUR
 Pro Tennis Tour lets you enter the world of a professional tennis
player. Pack your favorite whites and trusty racket and then travel to
the great Grandslam events: Wimbledon, French Open, U.S. Open, and the
Australian Open.

 You enter as a 64th ranked player. Through determination and practice,
you can fight your way up the ranks. Like the pros, you work the courts
and establish a game style all your own.

THE MAIN MENU
 From the Main Menu you can choose to practice serving and receiving,
participate in tournaments, view your current ranking, and adjust the
difficulty level of the game. You can also save your current progress
in the game and load previously saved games.

TOURNAMENT

 Table
 Table lets see the results of the last matches in the tournament. The
table is larger than the screen - use the joystick to bring different
scores into view. The numbers to the right of each player are the
number of games he won in the sets against the opponent above or below
him. To exit the Table, press the joystick button. Note: if you haven't
played any tournement matches, selecting this option has no effect.

 If you win, you'll see the results up to your match. When you finally
lose a match, you'll see the results of the entire tournament up to the
final match.

 Play
 Play lets you play in a tournament. If you just started Pro Tennis
Tour, you must enter your name before competing. Enter your name an
press Return. Your rank will automatically be 64th. A screen appears
announcing the tournament you're about to play in. Press the joystick
button to bypass the announcement, then press the joystick button again
to bypass the screen announcing your next match.

 Matches are played as in real tennis, except that you always have the
first serve. Note that you never see your player change sides - for
simplicity's sake, your player always appears in the foreground. Your
score appears on the screen between games. When the score is on the
screen, the match is paused - press the joystick to continue. You can
save a tournament in progress after completing one full match.

 When the match is over, your final score appears. Press the joystick
button to exit to the Tournament menu. If you won your match, select
Play again to begin your next match. If you lost your match, selecting
Play enters you in the next tournament.

 Once you've taken part in Melbourne Open, you're qualified to play in
the French Open at Roland Garros (regardless of your score in
Melbourne). The next tournament on the circuit is the All England
Championship in Wimbledon, followed by the U.S. Open at Flushing
Meadow. Tournaments are always played in this order, but you don't have
to play a tournament all the way through in order to go on to the next
one (see Stopping a Set or Practice Session on the Command Summary
Card).

 Note: Only the first two matches (the sixteenth and eight finals) of
the tournament can be played in Easy mode. The tird match (the quarter
final) is always played in at least Advanced mode.

 Main Menu
 Returns you to Main Menu.

PRACTICE

 Two Players
 This lets you play against a human opponent using a second joystick.
Unlike the Play mode, you and your opponent change sides after each
game.

 Machine
 Machine lets you practice with an automatic serving machine. Six
different programs help you strengthen your strokes. Each program adds
a new level of complexity by hitting balls to new locations on the
court or introducing a more difficult patern. Program 1 lets you
practice returning the ball from the baseline. Programs 2 and 3 hit
balls into the service courts as well as the area just past the service
line. Program 4, 5 and 6 let you practice returning the ball from all
areas of the court.
 The surface type you're practicing on depends on which Tournament you
last played in. If you're on a grass court and you want to practice on
clay or cement, select Play and go to the Tournament that has the type
of surface you want to practice on. Once you're in the tournament with
the surface type you want, stop the match and then return to Practice
mode.

Grass  - Wimbledon
Clay   - French Open
Cement - Australian Open or U.S.Open

 Service
 This lets you work on your serve. YOu can serve as long as you want.

 Main Menu
 Returns you to the Main Menu.

MODE

 Easy
 When you first load Pro Tennis Tour, you're automatically playing in
Easy mode. Serving is relatively simple in Easy mode / the ball always
goes over the net, so you really only need to place the crosshair in
the correct court to make a good serve. Returning the ball is easy, as
if you had an easy-to-handle oversized racket. In addition, a small
black cursor indicates where you should position your player in order
to hit the ball.

 Advanced
 In Advanced mode, all of the aids provided in Easy mode are gone.
There's no guarantee that the ball will make it over the net when
serving, and returning the ball takes greater precision. In addition,
there's no longer a small black cursor to help you position your
player.

 Professional
 Playing in Professional mode calls for a more varied approach and
sophisticated technique. As professionals, you and your opponent hit
harder, so the ball travels faster. It's important that you position
yourself quickly and press the joystick button at the right time
because your precise position in relation to the ball becomes critical.

RANKING
 Each player receives a rating measuring his ability and aggressiveness
on the court. All players (including you) are ranked according to this
score.
 When you select Ranking, the ranking chart appears. Use the joystick
to scroll through the players on the chart. The number to the right of
the player's name is his current rating. When you first load Pro Tennis
Tour, your rank is 64th.
 You can move up or down the ranking chart according to how well you
play in your matches. Remember that only the first 64 players appear on
the ranking chart. To exit Ranking, press the joystick button.

 You can also edit the players and their ranks as desired. See the
Command Summary Card for details.

STORAGE

 Load Game
 In the STORAGE MENU, select the option Load Game allows a few seconds
for the program to load. Then go back to the main menu and select first
Tournament and then Play.
 You can start playing again where you left off during any tournament.

 Save Game
 After a match has been played and the message "GAME, SET AND MATCH"
has been displayed, press the joystick button to exit to the main menu.
Select STORAGE in the main menu and then select SAVE GAME. Your last
match will automatically be saved, as well as your ranking and the
number of points you have gained.

TENNIS TECHNIQUES

 Serving
 Serving is a three-step prpcess.

 1.Push the fire button on the joystick to toss up the ball.
 2.In front of the server on the court, you'll see a crosshair(+).
   Guide the crosshair over to your opponent's service court (diagonal
   to you) where you want the ball to land.
 3.Push the button to hit the ball.Note: In Easy mode, you don't have
   to push the button a second time.

  If you're slow in guiding the cursor, the ball will be launched
automatically. If you push the fire button too early, the ball will go
outside the boundaries.

 Use the serve as an offensive attack. Keep your opponent in as
defensive of a position.

 Returning the Serve
 when returning a serve, your ability to play as offensively as
possible is critical.

 Various strokes

 Groundstrokes
 Strokes are defined as contact between the ball and the racket. When
you hit the ball after it bounces off the ground once, it's called a
groundstroke. The two main groundstrokes are the forehand and the
backhand. Whether you hit a forehand or backhand depends on your
relation to the arriving ball. In most cases, if you're to the left of
the arriving ball, you'll hit a forehand stroke.

 The distance between you and the ball influences the angle of your
hit. depending on the spot you aim for, you must be positioned
accordingly to determine the return angle.

 Try not to remain motionless when you're hitting. Stay on the move so
you're just a few steps away from getting into perfect position for the
ball. Think ahead and anticipate your opponent's moves, try to return
to the centre of the court so you're in relatively good position to run
for a ball hit to either your forehand or backhand.

 Lob
 The lob is a high, arcing hit, usually placed deep in the court. You
can use this hit when the opponent runs up to the net and you're in bad
position to receive his hit. This forces your opponent to retreat from
the net. In Pro Tennis Tour, the Lob is automatically controlled by the
computer.

 Volley
 The volley is an attacking stroke played before the ball touches the
ground. It is usually played in the service courts at net position. The
volley can be forehand or backhand. When you hit a volley, try to hit
the ball across the court as much as possible to increase the chances
of it landing within bounds.

 The second volley: This play is carried out after the opponent
successfully returns the ball after your initial volley; you close to
the net so you can smash the ball.

 Attacking your Opponent
 Down the line shot: You send the ball straight down the sideline.

 Cross court shot: You hit the ball diagonnaly so it cuts across the
 court.

 Passing shot: You hit the ball past the opponent to the  extreme left
 or right as he is dashing to the net for position.

 Aproach shot: You hit the ball as you approach the net.

 Ship shot: You hit the ball with moderate force to draw your opponent
 forward.

 Note: A drop shot is when you hit the ball just over the net. This is
 the only attacking shot you can't perform in Pro Tennis Tour.

 Spin Techniques on the Ball
 The top spin causes the ball to spin downward, pressuring the ball to
dip over the net quickly. A top spin also makes the ball travel forward
faster once it hits the ground.

 The underspin causes the ball to spin back towards you. When the ball
lands, there is less forward momentum on the ball so it "dies" more
quickly.

 The side spin causes the ball to spin rigth or left, according to
which direction you hit it. A side curves the trajectory of the ball.

 The computer automatically selects the spin technique depending on
ball velocity, type of court surface, and player's position.

RULES OF THE GAME

The Tennis Court
                             __________________
                            | |              | |
           doubles sideline_| |  centermark  | |
                            | |______________| |
                            | |       |      | |
                            | | 2.    | 1.   | |
                            | |       |      | |
                       post-|-|--------------|-|-singles post
                            | | 1.    | 2.   | |
                            | |       |    \_|_|_singles sideline
  1. left court             | |_______|______| |
                            | |            \_|_|_centerline
  2. right court            | |  centermark  | |
                            |_|______________|_\_alley
                                  baseline

              Alley:  The alley is used only in doubles play. In
                     singles play, the alley is considered out.
           Baseline:  You may not hit the ball beyond this line; if you
                     do, it's out.
         Centermark:  You must stand to either side of the centermark
                     when serving. The side you serve from is set; you
                     cannot choose for yourself.
Post & singles post:  In singles play, you must return the ball over
                     the net and between the singles posts.
 Right & left court:  You must hit the ball into one of these areas
                     when serving. You always serve into the court
                     diagonal from the side you're serving from.
       Serving line:  When serving, you may not hit the ball beyond
                     this line; if you do, it's a fault.
   Singles sideline:  This is the sideline for singles play. Any ball
                     hit outside of the singles sideline is considered
                     out. Balls hit on the line are considered in.

 Scoring

 1.For you to score, two things must happen:

  a) You must hit the ball into your opponent's half of the court; the
     ball may not bounce more than once in your court before you hit
     it.
  b) Your opponent must fail to return the ball to your half of the
     court.

 2.Tennis consists of game, set, and match.

 Game: The scoring system is 15, 30, 40, and game. If you and your
opponent are tied at 40, it's deuce. At deuce, the first one to win two
points in a row wins the game. When you win a point at deuce, you have
an advantage; that means you only need to win one more point to win the
game. When a player has an advantage, you'll see "ADV.PL.1" or
"ADV.PL2", depending on who has the advantage. If you or your opponent
win one point (have the advantage) and then lose the next point, the
score returns to deuce.

 Set: The first to win six games wins the set. If you're tied at 6
games, you play a tie-breaking seventh game. In this game, the first to
reach six points wins the game; you must win the game by two points.
Note: The tie-breaker is not scored like the regular game (i.e., 15,
30, 40, game). Each point won is a single point; the first to reach six
points wins.

 Match: Each match consists of five sets. The first to win three sets
wins the match.

 Serving

 1. You always serve first against the computer. If you're playing
against a friend, joystick 2 serves first. You alternate serves after
each game. You change ends of the court only when you're playing
against a human opponent; you'll change at the end of the first, third
and every subsequent alternate game of each set.

 2. You always begin service from the right side of your court,
alternating courts on each serve. You must serve the ball into your
opponent's service court, which is diagonal from yours.

 3. You get two chances to get the ball into your opponent's service
court. A serve is not good if: a) you hit the ball in the net or b) you
hit the ball outside of your opponent's service court. When you miss
the first serve, it's called a fault. When you miss the second serve,
it's a double fault. If you get a double fault, your opponent gets the
point.

 4. In contrast to actual tennis rules, you can't randomly select your
serving position since it's preselected by the computer to avoid
facilitation of aces (a served ball that your opponent never touches
with his/her racket). Likewise, you will never commit a foot fault
(step over the baseline on your serve).

5. If you hit the net on the first serve and the ball falls into your
opponent's service court, it's a let and you get to take the serve
over. If it hits the net and doesn't go into your opponent's service
court, it's a fault.

 Judges

 The judges make the call when the ball goes out of bounds or when
there's a service fault.

          Umpire: He oversees all play and can overrule a judge or
                  linesman if necessary.
       Net judge: He checks that the ball goes over the net clearly on
                  the serves.
 Footfault judge: He checks that the server's feet don't go over the
                  line when he serves. (There is no footfault in Pro
                  Tennis Tour).
        Linesman: He checks where the ball lands in relation to the
                  line.
 Time Outs
 There are no limit on number of time outs or lengths of time outs in
Pro Tennis Tour. See your Command Summary Card for instructions on how
to pause the game.

 Penalties
 The only penalty in Pro Tennis Tour is the following: if you wait more
than 30 seconds before serving the referee will shout out "TIME" and
you will have a penalty point.
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