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                             ====-====
                                 !
                                 !
                             ====-==== M P E R I U M 

                             from Electronic Arts


   		           DOCUMENTATION MANUAL


     ==================================================================


				   TUTORIALS


      =================================================================

Page:4

	You have just been elected as the leader of Earth's empire.  Your
job is to lead the empire to pre-eminence in the galaxy by a careful
combination of economic controls, diplomatic skill, and military action. 
To help you there, are a group of subordinate characters, who become your
ambassadors, fleet captains, and planetary leaders.  But watch out, they
are your political enemies too!  All elements of the game are inter-
connected, so success or failure in, say, economics, will heavily affect
your empire's overall performance.  You have help in the shape of optional
computer controlled intelligent advisers who can control parts of the
game.  If you wish, you can put the computer in charge of the military,
diplomatic or economic sides of the game, leaving you free to concentrate
on one or two main areas.

	o  Remain popular so that you win elections, and are not overthrown.
	o  Learn the correct military strategies and tactics to defeat
	   aggressive enemy empires that threaten your survival.
	o  Keep your population happy by keeping down inflation, and
	   ensuring a regular supply or commodities for them.
	o  Encourage trade, so that your empire may become rich.
	o  Make friends with other empires quickly, and enemies slowly,
	   but remember Palmerston's maxim "we have no permanent friends
	   and no permanent enemies."
	o  Colonize enough planets to sustain the expansion of your empire.
 	o  Maintain supplies of the life-extending drug - Nostrum - to keep
	   you and your favored henchmen alive while you achieve all the
	   above.

	Ultimately, you can win by surviving for a thousand years, or by
conquering all the other empires.  The former is probably more difficult
than the latter, so we would advise you to initially choose an aggressive
strategy.
	Imperium has been designed so that you can access all the data
in the game and make all your decisions in the simplest way possible.
Using a custom designed windowing system, Imperium is at your fingertips.
Once you have learned the basic skills needed for controlling the game you

Page:5

will be free to explore it and make your own decisions.

To help, this manual is divided up into three main sections:

1.   A tutorial section for those people who want to play the game without
	reading much of the manual.  This consists of The User Interface
	and Quick Start Guide.
2.   A copy of an Intelligence Report which each Cadet is given during
	training at the Imperial Academy.
3.   The Imperial Reference Manual, which takes you through all of the menu
	items and explains in detail how to use them.  Use this when you
	get stuck.


First Steps
-----------
	First of all start the game referring to the Imperium Reference
Card for loading instructions.  You will see the Imperium Configuration
window appear on the screen.  For now just select the OK button.  The
Imperium Configuration window allows you to set various difficulty levels
and rename your characters.  The functions of this window are covered in
greater detail in the Imperial Reference section page 27.
	At the top of the screen there is a row of sixteen icons.  The
one on the far right moves you to the map screen, whilst the others produce
menus or reports for you to control your empire.  These are as follows:


(left to right)    'GAME'   'GAME CONTROL PANEL'  
'ALLIANCE CONSTRUCTION'

'EMBARGO'   'SET TAXATION LEVELS'   'TREASURY
MENU'   'POLITICS MENU'

'SUBORDINATE DISPLAY'   'MILITARY MENU'   'CREATE ARK
SHIP'   'REPORTS'

'CLIPBOARD'   'NEWS'   'GAME TURN'  
'MAP'    (far right)

It is recommended that you first read the sections overview to learn how
the user interface works, and then run through the quick-start section to
get a feel for the game.


Page:6


			    THE USER INTERFACE
		


	This section will teach you how the Imperium user interface works.
Once you learn how the interface works, you can apply the same techniques
to different parts of the game.  For example, a button in the Alliance
Construction window will work in the same way as a button in the Embargo
window.

Anatomy of a window
-------------------
	A window is a self-contained entity that appears on the screen.  It
has a title bar, contains a variety of items, and can be moved, collapsed,
and closed.  A menu is a special kind of window that only contains a list
of items to select.  You can open several window on screen at once and
arrange them around the work area to suit your needs.
	Occasionally if you try to open too many windows, the program will
stop you and ask you to close some.  If this happens, close the warning
window, then close any windows that you are not using and carry on.

	o  Opening a Window:  Open the Alliance Construction window by
	   clicking on the ALLIANCE CONSTRUCTION icon.
	o  Moving the window:  Move the pointer over the blank title bar,
	   press and hold down the left mouse button.  The window will turn
	   into a frame.  Move the mouse to re-position the window and
	   release the left mouse button when the window is in the desired
	   position.

Page: 7

	o  Collapsing the window:  Collapse the window down to just its
	   title bar by clicking on the collapse box.  Expand the window
	   to its original size by pressing the collapse box again.
	o  Closing the window:  Close a window by clicking in its close box
	   or, if available, by pressing the button labelled CLOSE.  All
	   windows associated with a particular icon can be closed by
	   pressing that icon again to "pop" it out.
	o  Moving a window to the front:  Click on any part of a window to
	   bring it to the front of all overlapping windows.

Inside windows you will find the following things:
--------------------------------------------------

	Buttons:  These act just like the icons at the top of the screen.
		When you press them they either: bring up a list for you
		to make a choice from; perform an immediate direct action
		or act as on/off switches.  Switches fall into two types;
		radio buttons which become blank when selected and tick
		boxes which show a tick when selected.  Various icons are
		repeated throughout the game to signify a particular
		function.  For instance,  the EMPIRES icon always bring up
		a list of empires.  Here are the most common buttons:

EMPIRE   PLANET   FLEET   SUBORDINATE   COMMODITIES   AWARDS   APPOINTMENTS

	Data Fields:  These are dark grey boxes, which are automatically
		updated by the computer.
	Text Fields:  These are white boxes which can be typed into.  Click
		on the white box to type into it and if necessary use the
		DEL key to change the entry.  Press RETURN, ENTER or the
		right mouse button to return to the arrow cursor.

+------------------------------------------+
! DURATION    ! 150 !    <- text field     !
!   STATUS    !  Offered by you   !   <----!-- Computer filled data field
+------------------------------------------+

Page: 7

	Scrolling lists:  The planet list produced by the PLANETS icon is
		an example of a scrolling list.  If there are more items
		in the list than there is space to display them all, then
		the list will display up and down arrows that will let
		you page through the list to find the item you are looking
		for.  Press on the up arrow to page up and the down arrow to
		page down through the list.  If you type in the first
		three letters of the name you are searching for, the name
		will move to the top of the list automatically.  For
		example, to bring the planet SMOYAS to the top of the list,
		type SMO.  To reset the search, press ESC.
	Sliders:  Press the SET TAXATION LEVELS icon to look at a slider.
		When the window appears, click on the EMPIRES icon to
	        select an empire on which to set a taxation level.  Select
                an empire on which to set a taxation level.  Select an
		empire from the list that appears.  You can now alter the
		sliders in one of two ways:  either by clicking on the
		thumb (the small square with a dimple in the middle) and
		dragging it to the left or right, or by clicking directly
		on to the scale.  The number in the data field to the right
		of the scale will change correspondingly.

    +--------------------------------------------------+ +---------+
    !                         *                        ! !    80   !
    !                            *                     ! !    23   !
    !                          *                       ! !    22   !
    !                       *                          ! !    27   !
    +-----------------------^--------------------------+ +----^----+
                            !                                 !
                 Thumb: Click in this               Number showing value
 	         area and hold to move slider       selected


Page: 9


				QUICK START

This section will show you how to make a few decisions and play one game
turn.

Use the Map
-----------
	Press the MAP icon to call up the Map screen.  This shows all the
solar systems in your galaxy.  You can use it to get information about
your empire, and spy on your enemies.

	The screen is divided into four sections.  On the top left there are
eight icons that allow you to manipulate the map, and get information from
it.  In the middle is a scrollable list, which starts off blank, but can be
used to select different items on the map, like different empires or space
fleets.  On the top right are three text fields: Solar System, Planet and
Item.  The dark areas to the right of each of these titles display the
currently selected Solar System, Planet and Item (if one is selected).  An
item is a planet of fleet, which you can send to the clipboard using the
SEND ITEM TO CLIPBOARD button below the text fields.  The clipboard is a 
feature of Imperium that lets you transfer information from the Map screen
to the Main screen.

	When you start the game, the map is still.  The flashing star is the
solar system Phresys, and is the currently selected solar system (it is
shown in the top right text field).  It is also the solar system that
contains Earth, the home planet of your empire.

	o  You can use the icons to control the galactic map.  Use the
           ROTATION ARROW icons to rotate the map.  Clicking on one rotates
           the map in that direction until you click it again, or click the
           other direction icon.  Click on the SOLAR SYSTEM icon.  This will
           zoom in on the currently selected solar system to show you to the
           planets there.

Page: 10

	o  You can rotate planets around their star using the two ROTATION
           ARROW icons, just as you can with the whole galaxy.
	o  Click directly on the planets to see their names in the text
           field.  Note that the yellow planet is the star and will not
           show up in the ITEM data field.  Before you leave the solar
           system, click on the planet Earth in the three-dimensional
           display (the blue/white planet), and when you see EARTH appear
           in the ITEM data field, press the SEND ITEM TO CLIPBOARD button,
           so that you can look at it later.  You can move back to the
           galactic map by pressing the Solar System icon again.
	o  To leave the Map screen and go to the Main screen either press
           the RETURN TO MAIN SCREEN icon or press the right mouse button.


			        A SAMPLE TURN

You will now be on the Main screen.  For this sample turn, you will get a
report from an ambassador, another about planet Earth, give your home fleet
some orders and activate the computer controlled economics and diplomatic
adviser.

Get Report from Ambassador
--------------------------

To get the ambassadors report:
	o  Press the NEWS icon.

This will bring up the news control menu.  This menu has two items on it
NEWS CONTROL and NEWS REPORT.

        o  Press the NEWS REPORT button.  This brings the News Report itself.

You will use this to find out what happens in the game, and to get reports
from your subordinates.  When there are too many reports to fit on the
screen, scroll through the items by using the up/down arrows above and below
the list.
	o  Select the item that says 2020 AMBASSADOR.  It will turn black
           when selected.
	o  Select the GET REPORT button to see the news item you just
           selected.  A News Details report will appear at the bottom of the
           screen, and a tune will be played.  Click a mouse button to stop
           the music.  When you have read the report, selected the CLOSE

Page: 11

           button.
	o  The window will disappear, revealing the News Report window
           underneath it.  Once you have read a report you can delete it by
           clicking the DELETE button.  Do this now, while the report you
           just read is still selected.  DELETE ALL deletes every item on
           the list, regardless of whether you have read the items or now.
           Use with care as this is irreversible!  Close the News Report
           window by clicking on the CLOSE button and close the News Control
           menu by clicking on its close box.

Get Report on Earth
-------------------
Press the CLIPBOARD icon at the top of the screen.  This will open the 
Clipboard window which looks similar to the News window, and the buttons
REPORT, CLOSE, DELETE, and DELETE ALL work in the same way, as does the
window's close box.  The ORDERS button will be used later to give orders
to a space fleet.
	o  Select EARTH from the list, and press the REPORT button on the
           right.  This will bring up a comprehensive report on Earth
           showing various statistics.

Wealth, Population, and Stability are the most immediately important factors.
Technology Level and Material Infrastructure are almost as important in the
long term, and the other information is used to complete the picture and to
help make specific decisions, such as whether to colonize or decolonize the
planet.  Note: the leader on Earth is Amarillus.  He is the leader of the
empire, in other words YOU.
	o  Click on the CLIPBOARD icon to "pop" it out and close all of the
           clipboard windows in one go.

Give Fleet Orders
-----------------

You will now be able to use the clipboard to give orders to a fleet, but
first you need to bring up a Fleet Report.
	o  Press the MILITARY icon.  This will present the military menu.
           Select the button marked FLEET REPORT.  When you see the Fleet

Page: 11

           Report, it is blank, because no fleet has been selected.  To
           select a fleet click on the FLEET icon.  This will bring up a
           menu of all the existing fleets - at this time only the HOME
           FLEET exists, so select that.  This will then fill in the report
           with information on the home fleet, including its leader, and the
           number of ships in it - none at the moment.

You add ships to a fleet using the ship transfer icons.  The pool is your
stock of ships awaiting assignments at the currently selected location,
which in this case is Earth.  You start the game with two scouts in Earth
orbit (in the pool).
	o  Select the POOL TO FLEET icon.  This icon brings up a menu of the
           ships in the pool.  Click on both SCOUT 0 and SCOUT 1 - they will
           both turn black, indicating that they are selected.  Then click
           on the OK button on the Fleet Report, this is to say that you
           want to make these changes. (If you don't want to confirm
           something in the game, just close a window without pressing OK).
           The Fleet Report shows that the two ships have been transferred
           by updating the STRENGTH, DEFENCE, and NUMBER OF SHIPS text
           fields.  Click on the POOL TO FLEET icon again to remove the
           Select Ship menu.  For the time being ignore the troop transfer
           section of the report, and CLOSE the Fleet Report window.
	o  Press the GIVE FLEET ORDERS item on the military menu.  (You may
           need to move the windows around so that they are all in view.) 
           When the Fleet Orders window appears, click on the FLEET icon
           and select HOME FLEET from the menu that appears. 

The orders list on the left contains the five blank steps of an orders
sequence.  For example, it allows you to program your fleets to first fly
somewhere, then wait five years, then fly elsewhere and invade a planet.  In
this instance you will just order the fleet to fly to Mars.
	o  To input the first order, select the top space on the order
           list.  Press the MOVE TO order button so that MOVE TO appears
           in the order list.  Select the PLANETS icon to bring up a list
           of destination planets.  Select MARS.  Now that everything is
           set, click on OK to confirm your selections and CLOSE the
           window.

Finally put away the Military menu either by closing it, or by clicking on
the Military icon at the top of the screen.

Page: 13


		    SET TAXATION AND DIPLOMACY TO AUTOMATIC

Before you finish this turn, you must give economic orders, and diplomatic
instructions to your ambassadors, because each of these helps to improve
your empire's wealth and stability.  In order to make things easy, the game
provides intelligent computer controlled advisers to run parts of the empire
for you and for this you can invoke them to help you.
	o  Press the GAME CONTROL PANEL icon.  When the window appears,
           select the DIPLOMACY and ECONOMICS tick boxes.  When you do this
           a little tick mark will appear to tell you that this particular
           area of the game is now subordinated.  Later you can take back
           control by unchecking these tick boxes.  Press OK to confirm
           the changes, and CLOSE the window.

Next Turn
---------
Now that everything is set for your first turn:
	o  Press the NEXT TURN icon.  The Game Turn window will appear
           containing a text field for you to enter the length of turn and
           another showing the date.  Press the button marked NEXT TURN to
           move on one year.
           All the orders you made for the selected period will be put
           into action.

	On your first game turn you will have to enter some confidential
data to validate your access at this stage and before your next turn can
commence.
	The computer will spend a few moments updating all the data and
recording all the changes that have taken place (no small task with over
100 planets, and several other empires to manage).
	When the game turn is over, the news report will automatically appear,
and show some of the events that happened in that turn.  To view these events,
click on the relevant report and then select the GET REPORT button.  Once
you have read the report, CLOSE the News Details window and repeat the
process for the remaining reports in the list.  For the first turn this will
usually consist of all your ambassadors reporting information about other
empires.
	At this point you may like to investigate the windows to see what
effect the above actions have had on your money supplies, fleet location and
commodity levels.

Page: 14


  			          WHERE NOW?

You have completed your first turn of Imperium.  What next?  You should read
through the next section, Intelligence Report (by Emperor Colinus + 2019),
which will go through the various vital concepts in the game, such as what a
full Game Turn actually consists of.

Basic strategies for continuing the game are as follows:
	o  You will need to build up your monetary supplies, since this will
           affect all other areas of the game.  To do this you will need to
           assess your economic strategy.  Experiment with alliances and
           set your taxation levels.  The Historical Wealth chart under the
           Treasury Menu is a good indication of how well you are doing.
	o  Subsidise planets (using the Imperial treasury) under your
           control in order to maximize their productivity.  Productivity
           is measured by the various planets' Technology Levels, Material
           Infrastructures and Planetary Defences, which will all need to
           be increased in the long term.  Look at the Planetary Report to
           view these levels.
	o  Set up Embargoes to protect commodities vital to your empire. 
           Running out of these will affect your popularity and production
           capacity.  Check your Imperial commodity levels in the Treasury
           menu to monitor your progress.
	o  Building troops will enhance your military powers, and protect
           planets under your control.  Troops are vital when invading
           enemy empires.  The size of garrisons can be checked on the
           Planetary Report.
	o  Build ships and create fleets in order to claim planets.  Take
           over control of planets to increase your commodity levels.
           Controlling planets to increase your commodity levels.
           Controlling planets with Nostrum, the life preserving drug, is
           vital to your survival.  In order to colonize a planet and make
           it productive you will need to send an Ark Ship to increase the
           population. 

You can find all relevant information on any of the above in the Reference
section.  We wish you happy colonizing!


Page: 15


      =================================================================


		                INTELLIGENCE REPORT

			     Filed by Emperor Colinus
	             Just before his demise in the year 2019


       ================================================================


Page: 16


PLANETS, SOLAR SYSTEMS AND THE GALAXY

	The galaxy contains a number of stars, each forming the centre of a
solar system.  Each solar system contains from one to five planets each
capable of supporting life.  The level of habitability of each planet is
affected by its star's type, its distance from the start, the planetary
type
and its atmosphere.


EMPIRES

An empire is the overriding political, military and economic force that
holds any number of planets together.  The planetary leader of the home
world is responsible for both that planet and the empire as a whole.

Within the game there are two types of eco-political unit; the planet and
the empire.  The empire is a body that is treated separately to its planets.
For example, there are planetary and Imperial treasuries.


TREASURIES

The concept of the Imperial treasury and planetary treasury is the key to
understanding the way the economics of the game work.  A planet's treasury
is the total amount of money the planet has in its 'Bank' and the
planet
cannot go overdrawn.  Unlike a planetary treasury, the Imperial treasury can
go overdrawn, attracting interest, which is shown as an increasingly large
negative value.  Some areas will affect the amount of money in the Imperial
treasury to a greater extent than others.  For example, ship building and
Imperial subsidies require a lot of capital expenditure.

THE GAME TURN

A game turn consists of manipulating six areas which should be played in the
following order:

1	Imperial Finance		For example, paying interest on
					overdrafts.
Page: 17

2	Main Economics			For example, resolving trade
					between planets and empires.
3 	Main Diplomacy			For example, offering and
					responding to alliances.
4	Main Military			For example, conflict resolution.

5	Population			For example, lowering the stability
					factor and adjusting the population
					growth.
6	Effects				For example, subsidising planets,
					shipbuilding, sending Ark Ships
					and constructing antenna.

The order in which issues are resolved can be important in certain
situations in the game.  For example, Economics problems should be resolved
before Military problems, so planet defences are increased through trade
before a fleet invades in a given year.

DEFINITION OF UNITS

	Money		1 unit = 100,000 Imperial Zongs (credits)
	Population	1 unit = 100,000 people
	Tonnage		1 unit = 100 tonnes


TRADE AND ECONOMICS


Page: 18

A planet produces, trades and has a demand for twenty different commodities.
Planets trade with one another within their empires, then with planets from
other empires.  Excess stock will be sold to the merchant fleet.  The
merchant fleet are a mysterious impromptu band of interstellar traders, who
will purchase commodities from planets that have a surplus.  A surplus in a
commodity is defined as any quantity between 200 to 250 depending on the type
of planet.

A planet that needs to buy commodities from outside its empire will look at
a number of factors before selecting a planet to purchase from.  It will
look at the distance between itself and other planets and consider the price
of the commodity, the level of taxation between the planets and the
diplomatic situation between the empires governing them.  A planet will not
be able to trade if it is blockaded or in a state of war.

A planet will trade to a minimum commodity level of 10, thus allowing itself
a degree of margin on its own supply and demand.  It will not let itself
get into an out of stock situation, thus a planet will never trade to a
negative commodity level.


PRODUCTION, THE PRINCIPLES


Every planet is assumed to produce the correct level of commodities to
satisfy the needs of its current population.

A planet produces commodities to support up to a maximum population level of
25,000 units.  Above this level, the demand for commodities is greater than
the planet can produce under normal circumstances.

There are various factors that will affect the productivity of a planet. 
These are the type of atmosphere it has, the type of planet, the star that
it is orbiting, and the planet's distance from the star.


Page: 19


Two other factors affect productivity:
--------------------------------------

Material Infrastructure

 	A high level of material infrastructure will assist a planet's
productivity as it covers services such as road and rail networks
education, hospitals and health care - the physical backbone of the planet.

Stability

	A low stability factor will assist a planet's productivity as it
represents the attitude and political state of the population.
An example of a producive planet would be an agricultural one with a
nitrogen/oxygen atmosphere in the 5th orbit around a G7 star having a high
material infrastructure and low stability factor.

Distortion

	A report on another empire or planet, that is not part of your
empire will contain a degree of distortion.  The level of distortion
reflects the amount of error existing in the figures displayed.  For
instance a report that has 100% distortion is effectively useless, whilst a
report showing 10% distortion is close enough to the truth to be valuable.
	Distortion is determined by whether or not the target falls within
the catchment area of an antenna.  If the planet is within the antenna
catchment, then the distortion is 0%, outside of the maximum range the
distortion increases with distance.  If two empires have an information
alliance, they both have a 0% distortion level for planets within the two
empires and also share antenna catchment areas.  If a fleet is within a
solar system, then all of its planets will have 0% distortion as long as
that fleet remains in the system.

Combat

	There are four types of combat occurring in the game:

	o  Deep Space
	o  Solar System
	o  Planetary Bombardment
	o  Ground Assault

All these combat situations can arise with more than one opponent at a
time.  For example, three empires could be fighting for possession of one
planet.  Combat is resolved by comparing the strengths of each side and
applying casualties to the forces involved until one side withdraws or is
defeated.

Deep Space or Opportunity Fire

	This occurs when different empires' fleets travel near enough to
one another to allow them to engage in combat.  The damage done by the
fleets is inversely proportional to the distance between them.  Fleets of
different empires will always take the opportunity to fire at each other
even if they are in an alliance. (This type of combat will not affect the
alliance state between them).

Deep space combat is not very common, because space is so immense and
fleets tend not to pass close to each other.

Solar System Combat

	This occurs when unfriendly fleets are in the same solar system.
The damage inflicted is not affected by distance, as the fleets are close
together.

Solar system combat is resolved as follows:
	
	o  The strengths of the opposing forces are calculated, this is
           equal to the total of each fleets' strength.
	o  Tactics are chosen by each side.  Each Fleet Commander selects a
           tactic for his side.  This tactic applies to solar system combat
           and to any invasion that may follow:  The Fleet Commander's
           competence and charisma influences the outcome of the conflict
           by the tactics he chooses.
	o  The tactics are compared and the fleet strength modified
           according to each tactic's suitability.
	o  The modified strengths are then compared and damage is
           inflicted.


Page: 21


Planetary Bombardment
---------------------
	Before an invasion fleet can deploy troops onto the planet surface,
all of the planet's defences must be completely defeated.  The invasion
fleet must fight the defence force until it is destroyed.  If there are
other planets belonging to the empire within the same solar system, these
other planets add 20% of their defence strength to the planet under attack.
The other planets are not damaged in this combat.

Planetary bombardment is resolved as follows:
	o  The strengths of the combatants, the strength of the fleet and
           the planet's defences are calculated.
	o  The invasion tactics are chosen, if they have not previously
           been selected in solar system combat they are selected now.  The
           Fleet Commander's competence and charisma influences the outcome
           of the conflict.
	o  If the invasion planet falls within the antenna range of your
           empire then there is a 10% bonus added to your strength.  This
           bonus is because you have the advantage of knowing the lay of
           the land and the defence positions.
	o  If there is an alliance between your empire and the empire you
           are attacking then you get a 10% strength bonus for surprise
           and suddenness of the attack.
	o  The total strengths are then compared and damage is inflicted.


Ground Assault

This can only occur after the invasion fleet has destroyed all the planet's
defences through bombardment.  At this point, the fleet automatically
deploys its troops onto the planet to do battle.  The main attacking force
of the fleet is its drop troops as they can attack at full efficiency
during the turn in which they invade.  Infantry and armoured troops have

Page: 22

their efficiency halved in the turn the invasion starts, because they are
less suited to this operation than drop troops.

After the first year of the battle, the infantry and armoured units are at
full efficiency and drop troops fight at the same level as the infantry.

Ground assault combat is supported through the use of indirect fire from
the fleet in orbit around the planet, 50% of the fleet's weapon strength
can
be brought to bear as indirect fire.  Ships in the fleet cannot take damage
while providing indirect fire.

The planet's defending forces receive aid from the planet militia - a weak
force that is called upon to defend a planet against invasion.  A militia
force of 1% of the population can be mobilized at the start of a conflict,
at a starting efficiency of 25% + 0.1% per unit of militia arms on that
planet.


EFFICIENCY


Efficiency is the percentage of the troops that are ready for combat and
able to fight.  The efficiency of troops is used to calculate the strength
they contribute to the battle.  As a battle progresses, the efficiency
level will fall, as troops become disorganized, tired and run out of
supplies.  To represent this, the efficiency of each troop type is reduced
by 5% per year that the conflict lasts.  A troop's efficiency cannot fall
to below 20%.  In peace-time, the efficiency of a troop type is slowly
increased until it reaches its maximum.

COMBAT STRATEGIES AND EFFECTS

During Ground Assault Combat:
	o  The strength of each opposing force is calculated.
	o  The effect of the selected tactics is applied - the same tactics
           that were chosen for the invasion apply to ground combat.
	o  The total strength of each force is compared and the damage
           applied.

Effects of Ground Assault Combat:
        o  Production on the planet is halved. 
        o  The planet is blockaded and there can be no trade with that
           planet.
        o  The Moral Infrastructure is reduced by 5 for each year the
           conflict lasts.
        o  The stability factor is increased by 10 for each year the
           conflict last which causes instability.
        o  The planet's defences cannot be rebuilt while there is combat on
           that planet.
        o  The population is reduced according to the number of troops
           involved in the conflict.

Ground Assault Combat Results
-----------------------------
        When two forces engage in battle the strength totals are added
together and then compared to give a ratio.  The ratio determines the
amount of damage that each side takes in the battle.

        The strengths of each side are calculated by multiplying the number
of troops by their current efficiency rating.  The attacking force adds the
indirect fire to the total strength.

        If the forces have a 10-1 difference then the larger side will
totally destroy the smaller suffering only slight damage themselves.  If
the forces have a ratio of 5-1 then the large side will win taking only
light casualties.  At ratios below 5-1, the larger side will take more
substantial damage in defeating their opponents.

Damage to Fleets
----------------
        The total damage inflicted on a fleet is not all targeted at one
ship, but is spread throughout the fleet.  A part of the total damage is
allocated to each of the ships in the fleet.  If the damage inflicted to an
individual ship is greater than its current armour level the ship is
destroyed.  If it less than the current armour total then the damage done
is subtracted from the armour level.

Page: 24

If a ship is destroyed, the total carrying capacity of the fleet is
reduced, if the current troop level is greater than the new carrying
capacity of the fleet then the excess troops are lost.

Tactics
-------
When a fleet engages in either solar system combat or planetary invasion,
the commanders of the fleets and/or the planet leader select a general
tactic that the fleet will take.  The leader will select a tactic based
upon a combination of their competence and their charisma: the better their
qualities are, the stronger their decision-making skills will be.  By
selecting good tactics, a leader can turn a battle in your favor.  The
tactics selected for planet invasion also apply to ground assault.

There are five basic forms of tactic that a leader can select; Sweep,
Patrol, Assault, Blocking and Envelopment. 

The tactics are compared and the modifiers are applied to each side's
strength to get a result.

Read the left column against the top row to get the resultant modification
for each combination of maneuvers. 


Page: 25


Blockades
---------
A planet with an enemy in its orbit is termed as "under blockade".  A
blockaded planet cannot trade with any other planets and can not receive
ark ships; it is isolated for the period of the blockade.

Planets can free themselves by removing the fleets in their orbit, which can
be achieved in a number of ways.  For instance, the enemy fleet is
automatically exposed to fire from the blockaded planet's defences,
although only a portion of the defences can be brought to bear on the
fleet.  If the enemy fleet is only small, the planetary defences may be
able to destroy it or force the enemy fleet to withdraw by damaging it.  A
blockade can also be removed if a friendly fleet can be in to destroy the
enemy fleet or force it to withdraw.


                                  REPORT END



Page: 26


        =============================================================


                                REFERENCE SECTION

        =============================================================



Introduction

This section itemizes all of the procedures which you will need to
implement during your reign.  It assumes that you have worked your way
through the Tutorial section.  (If you have not done this, you are advised
to go back and refer to it now before continuing).  You should use this
section as a reference, not as compulsory reading.

You will find a chapter for each of the menu bar titles.  Each chapter has
separate headings for all items listed.  These give the function and
purpose of each of the items, together with any procedures that you should
be aware of.  You will also find hints and examples (in italics), which
will help deepen your knowledge of the points covered.


Page: 27

                             IMPERIUM CONFIGURATION

This window appears each time you start a new game and governs the settings
for the entire game session.  You can use this menu to enter your
character's name in this game and also to give a name to your empire.
Note: changing names is purely optional.  The difficulty level of the game
is also determined using this menu.

   To change the name of your character and empire
        o  Select the name field
        o  Delete the current name by backspacing through it.
        o  Type your new name
        o  Press RETURN of the right mouse button to enter the new name
        o  Select the empire name field
        o  Delete the current name by backspacing through it
        o  Type your new empire name
        o  Press RETURN or the right mouse button to enter the new name.

Difficulty Levels
-----------------
A low settings will mean that the game is easier to play than at a high
setting.

The various categories are as follows:
--------------------------------------
Wealth         Starting size of the Alien empires' treasuries.
Technology     Starting level of the Alien empires' technology level.
Army Size      Starting size of the Alien planetary garrisons and the
               number of ships in the alien fleets.  The size of the these
               ships is defined by the starting technology level for the
               empire.
Empire Size    The number of planets in the Alien empires.

        To change the difficulty level of the game
        ------------------------------------------
                o  Move the slides to the desired levels to set the
                   starting configuration for this game
                o  Press OK to confirm these settings


Press: 27


                                    GAME

Click on the GAME icon to reveal the following items.

About Game
----------
This gives information on the people involved in the creation of Imperium.

Rename
------
You can give new names to planets, empires, solar systems or subordinates.

        To rename a subject:

                o  Select the type of subject to rename (i.e.: planet)
                o  Select the subject icon that appears in the Rename
                   window (i.e.: the SUBORDINATE icon.)
                o  Select the item to rename from the list
                o  Select the text field
                o  Delete the name and enter a new one
                o  Click on OK to complete the selection and CLOSE the
                   window.

Load/Save
---------
Refer to the Reference Card for details on loading and saving games.


Quit Game
---------
This exits from the game and starts a new game.  You will be asked to
confirm this action by clicking either YES or NO.


Page: 29

                                GAME CONTROL PANEL

Click on the GAME CONTROL icon to reveal the following categories.

Game Sound
----------
Select the tick box to switch the news report tunes on or off

Subordinate
-----------
Selecting the box (tick will appear) next to a subordinate (a
computer-controlled adviser) gives that subordinate complete authority to
make decisions on your behalf.

        To select a subordinate controlled area:
                o  Select the tick box for the area that you wish to
                   subordinate.
                o  Click OK and then CLOSE the window

        Computer control can be delegated to the following area:

Military
--------
The military subordinate controls all the elements of shipbuilding, troop
movement and fleet control.

Diplomacy
---------
The diplomacy subordinate negotiates with other empires.  He will also deal
with alliance offers from the other empires.


Economics
---------
The economics subordinate deals with setting taxes, overproduction,
Imperial subsidies and transferring wealth.  He also manages the
construction of antenna and building and sending ark ships.

If you have all of the subordinates switches on, they will deal with most
of the elements of the game.  You will need to deal with subordinate
control and politics.  As a position becomes available a subordinate is

Page: 30

automatically brought from the pool of subordinates and allocated to the
position without reference to their abilities.  You should always go back
and manually select and appropriate subordinate for these positions.  (see
the section on subordinates for more details.)



                           ALLIANCE CONSTRUCTION


The Alliance Construction window has two functions: firstly the receipt of
alliance offers and secondly creating and offering new alliances.  You will
need to exercise your diplomatic skills in building alliances.

Click on the ALLIANCE CONSTRUCTION icon to open the window.

        To create a new alliance:
                o  Select the WITH EMPIRE icon
                o  Select the empire you want the alliance with, from the
                   list that appears.
                o  Enter either the amount of money to be paid by you, or
                   to be received by you in the appropriate text entry box.
                   This is a yearly payment that will continue until the 
                   alliance ends.
                o  Select the type of alliance that you wish to offer (ie:
                   information, defensive of offensive, by clicking in the
                   radio buttons adjacent and if it is offensive; enter in
                   enter in the percentage terms of the trade barrier if
                   you wish to apply this sanction.
                o  Selecting an offensive alliance means that you have to
                   select an empire that you and the allied empire are to
                   be united against.  To do this select the AGAINST EMPIRE
                   icon, and choose the empire from the list that appears.


Page: 31

                o  Enter the duration of the alliance in the text entry
                   box (in years)
                o  When you have an alliance proposal you are happy with,
                   select the OFFER button to send the message through to
                   the relevant Ambassadors.  The following year the empire
                   will respond to your offer.

        To respond to an alliance offer from an empire:

                o  Select the WITH EMPIRE icon
                o  Select the empire the offer has come from, from the
                   list that appears
                o  Look at the offer and decide whether to accept or
                   reject it.  Then select the ACCEPT or REJECT button 
                   accordingly.
                o  If you wish to modify the offer then follow the
                   instructions to create a new alliance (overleaf).

        To offer a new alliance to an empire with whom you already
accepted an alliance:

                o  Select the WITH EMPIRE icon
                o  Select the empire to view the current alliance
                o  Change the alliance to the new conditions you wish
                   to offer and OFFER it.

If the new alliance offer is not accepted then the old one will not be
affected.  When you are offered an alliance it can only be accepted the
year in which it is offered.  After that time the offer is withdrawn, but
any previous alliances still stand.

Types of Alliance Available Trade Barrier
-----------------------------------------
A trade barrier sets the allied empires' export tax rate against
another empire.  (See Set Taxations Levels) Setting a high export tax rate
allows you to restrict the trade flow between empires.  For instance the
Throygon and Droygon Empires ally against the Kroygon empire setting an 80%
Trade barrier.

Page: 32

This will make it very expensive for the Kroygon empire to trade with
Throygon or Droygon.

Economic Treaty
---------------
This sets the tax rates between allied empires.  It has the same effect as
altering the tax rates under Set Taxation Levels.

Defensive
---------
A defensive alliance affects the expansion policies of the allied empire.
When that empire selects planets to invade, a defensive alliance will sway
their choice away from your planets.

Offensive
---------
An offensive alliance is agreed between two empires, against another.  When
the allied empire is selecting planets to invade, an offensive alliance
will sway their choice towards the empire you are allied against.  The
percentage terms you enter into the trade barrier will be applied to the
empire which the offensive alliance is made against. (Although this
percentage can be zero (i.e.: no trade barrier))

Page: 33

Information
-----------
An information alliance is formed to allow the free trade of information
between the two empires.  The distortion factors are reduced to 0% on all
allied empire reports.  Your empire has access to the allied empire's
antenna and the extra information that these provide.

An alliance is broken if either party takes military action other than
'opportunity fire' against the other party.  All benefits will be
lost, and
the relationship between the two empires will also be affected.

Page: 34


                                   EMBARGO


An embargo is a trade and commerce barrier, that can be set against other
empires to restrict the movement of certain commodities.

Click on the EMBARGO icon to open the window.

        To create an embargo:
                o  Select the NEW to create a new Unnamed embargo
                o  Select the EMPIRE icon and select the empire of ALL
                   EMPIRES for the embargo to affect
                o  Select the COMMODITIES icon and select the
                   commodities that you wish to select ALL COMMODITIES or
                   or just some of them.
                o  Click on OK when you are happy with the details of
                   the embargo
                o  Select the COMMAND icon and select SHOW DETAILS, this
                   displays the specific details of the embargo.  CLOSE the
                   Embargo Details window.
                o  Select RENAME EMBARGO from the commands list, select the
                   text field and backspace through Unnamed (or the current
                   name) and type in the new name for the embargo.
                o  Click on OK and CLOSE the Embargo window when you are
                   satisfied with the embargo
                o  Click on the EMBARGO icon at the top of the screen to
                   close all the Embargo sub-windows

An embargo will stop the trade of specific commodities with specified
empires.  An embargoed commodity will not be sold to the selected empire,
although it will be purchased from them if required.

Page: 35


                            SET TAXATION LEVELS


You can set an import and export tax level with each empire in the galaxy.
The tax rates apply to all of your empire's planets.

Click on the SET TAXATION LEVEL icon to open the window

        To set new taxation levels:
                o  Select the EMPIRE icon
                o  Select an empire from the list that appears
                o  Set each slider to represent the level of tax
                   required for imports and exports
                o  Click OK before continuing

Import Tax: Is the level of tax that your planets have to pay to your
Imperial treasury when they buy commodities from an alien empire.  You can
set a negative tax (a subsidy), in which case your Imperial treasury will
pay your planets a subsidy when they buy commodities from an alien empire.

For example:- If Earth bough commodities at a cost of 100 from an alien
empire and you had set an import tax of -15%, then the Earth would pay 100
to the selling alien planet from Earth's own planetary treasury.
Additionally, Earth's planetary treasury would be paid 15 from your
Imperial Treasury.

Page: 36

Export Tax: Is the level of tax that an alien Imperial treasury pays to
your Imperial treasury when one of your planets exports good to one of that
Alien empire's planets.  Again, you can set a negative tax rate in which
case your Imperial treasury will pay the alien Imperial treasury when one
of your planets exports good to one of that Alien empire's planets.

For example:- If Earth sells commodities at a cost of 100 to an alien
empire and you had set an Export tax of -15%, then Earth's planetary
treasury would receive 100 from the selling alien planet.  Additionally,
your Imperial treasury would pay 15 to the alien Imperial Treasury.

Both Import and Export taxes can be used to either stimulate or to restrict
trade between empires, but the Import tax only has the effect of moving
money between your Empire's planets and the Imperial treasury.  Export tax
transfers money between the different Empire's Imperial treasuries.



                               TREASURY MENU


This covers general finance, including commodities and commodity control.

Click on the TREASURY MENU icon to open the window.

Transfer Wealth
---------------
Transfer wealth allows you to make an immediate cash transfer between your
empire's planets and the Imperial treasury, or vice versa.

Page: 37

        To transfer cash:
                o  Select the PLANET icon and select the planet you wish to
                   transfer cash to or from.
                o  Enter the amount to transfer in the text field.
                o  Select either TO PLANET or FROM PLANET button, to
                   transfer the cash between the planet and the Imperial
                   treasury.
                o  Select the BALANCE button to even out the planet
                   treasury levels of all of your planets.

Historical Wealth
-----------------
This displays your total wealth, which consists of the combined wealth of
all your planets' treasuries and Imperial treasury.  The total for the
previous four years is also displayed.

Historical Price Index
----------------------
This shows the historic price index for your empire.  The actual values are
not given, but general trends can be seen from the bar charts.  The price
index is an average of the percentage change in commodity prices between
this year and last.

Imperial Commodity Levels
-------------------------
This displays the cumulative total of your empire's commodities.  Only this
year's commodity levels are shown - no historical information is stored.

Page: 38

Each planet can only hold a maximum commodity level of between 150 to 250
depending on commodity and planet.  At levels above this, the surplus is
traded to the Merchant fleet at current market prices.  The Imperial
commodity level of a specific commodity represents the total of all your
planets' current levels.  So with six well stocked planets (each planet has
an average of 200 units), the Imperial commodity level will be around 1,200
units, and yet for ten poorly stocked planets (each planet has an average
of 100 units) the commodity level will be around 1,000 units.

If the Imperial commodity level is negative, this means there is a shortage
of this commodity.  It also means that the shortfall has not been met
through trade.

If the commodity level is zero it means that the shortfall has been met
through trade and the demand satisfied.

A surplus will not be created through trade, only demand will be satisfied.

Imperial Production
-------------------
You can use an Imperial directive to alter the balance of commodity
production levels.

        To set the Imperial production levels:
                o  Set the four sliders to the balance of production
                   required. (Up to plus or minus 10%)
                o  Use ZERO to reset all the sliders to zero if needed
                o  Click on OK and CLOSE the window

Page: 39

Areas of Production are as follows:
-----------------------------------

Consumer Items          Consumer Goods
                        Food
                        Water
                        Atmosphere
Military                Planetary Defences
                        Militia Arms
                        Space Ship equipment
                        Personnel
                        Heavy Arms
Technology              Rare Earth Elements
                        Information
                        Communications Equipment
                        Computers
                        Robots
Industrial              Building Equipment
                        Heavy Plant
                        Power Supplies
                        Raw Materials
                        Material Infrastructure


Page:40

Imperial Subsidy:
-----------------

This is an Imperial budgeting system allowing you to allocate cash to
support specific planets.  Making payments to a planet over a period of
 time allows you to slowly increase the levels of technology, material
infrastructure and planetary defences.  There is a limit of 100 units
of cash to be spent on technology and 10,000 credits on material
infrastructure and planetary defences.

       To set an Imperial subsidy:

               o    Select the planet icon
               o    Select the planet you wish to subsidise.
               o    Enter into each text field the yearly payment for
                    Technology Level, Material Infrastructure and
                    Planetary Defences.
               o    Enter the DURATION for which this subsidy will
                    last.  The number of years the subsidy has left
                    will be reduced annually until it reaches zero, at
                    which point the subsidy has finished.
               o    Click on OK and CLOSE the window.

Spending on the technology level will affect it slowly.  Material
Infrastructure and planetary defences are commodities that can and
will be traded with other planets through normal trading.  Material
infrastructure is not bought on a linear pricing scale; as the level
of infrastructure grows, the cost of maintaining and increasing it will
rise at a greater rate.

It is possible to alter a subsidy before its duration is finished.  To
do this click on the appropriate text field, alter the amount and then
click on OK.

  Setting up subsidies for each of your planets allows you to research
and build on the technology levels of the planets.  It is not possible
to increase the technology level, this can only be done through slow
and constant spending.  The material infrastructure and planet defences
can be increased relatively quickly,  but can be reduced just as
rapidly through trade and war.

Page:41

Imperial Volume of Trade:
-------------------------

This displays the relative levels of trade between your empire and all
other empires in the game.

The difference in the level of imports and exports shows the balance of
trade for your empire.  If you are importing goods you know that your
empire is not producing the correct quantity of commodities to satisfy
its demand.  If your empire is exporting goods then you know that there
is a surplus of commodities and that the economy of your empire is
healthy.

                                 P O L I T I C S


Click on the Politics icon to open this window.

The Politics menu offers the election options and population control.
Politics, by its nature is a more tangible force in the galaxy, and is
therefore a less controllable area of the game.  Elections can be a
major stumbling block to a planet leaders career, if his or her
policies and leadership are not popular.

ELECTION:
---------

An election is a crucial event in the career of an Emperor.  Every 50
years, the home planet leader's position comes up for re-election.  It
us possible to have an election before the 50 year period is up.  This
happens either through a vote of no confidence, or by the home planet
leader calling an election when he/she feels that the time is right.

  Note: If you fail to win a full majority in the election, your game
will end!  The election window displays the years remaining to the next
election and the current popularity of the planet leader.

     To call and election:

          o    Select ELECTION from the menu.
          o    Enter the amount of cash that you wish to spend on the
               roadshow and campaign, in the Election Campaign Fund Field.
          o    Select CALL ELECTION to proceed to the Election day.
          o    The votes are received planet by planet throughout the
               empire.  Each canidate's percentage of the vote is
               displayed on the graph.
          o    When the final votes are counted, the result is
               displayed in the Election Winner field.  The game can
               only continue if your home planet leader is elected
               again.

There are three possible results to an election.  If the voting is in
your favor and you receive more than 50% of the vote then the game
continues.  If one of the other subordinates wins votes of greater than
50% then they are voted the new planetary leader of your home planet
and your game is over.  If the vote splits without a clear majority
then there is a hung vote, you no longer have control and your game is
over.

An election requires three candidates: planet leader of the home planet
(YOU), a member of your cabinet who aspires to the position of planet
leader of the home world and a member of the pool of subordinates.  The
opposition are chosen for their qualities and their lack of loyalty to
you.

The current planet leader has some advantages as he is judged on
historical popularity, on his cabinet's abilities and on his own
personal qualities.

Election results and politics in general are strongly influenced by the
media and promotional cash injections.  Spending on the campaign fund
allows the planet leader to gain the advantage of an extensive and
expensive political road show to sway the voting public with ritz and
glamour.

     The selection of your subordinates can be a vital factor at
election time, if you have neglected your cabinet and your subordinates
then at election time you could easily find yourself with some very
promising opposing candidates.

PAGE:43

Population Control:
-------------------

You can modify the population growth rate by offering incentive programs
to all planets within your empire.

     To set population growth:

          o    Set the slider to the population control value required.
               (Up to plus or minus 10%).  The figure you set is
               displayed next to the slider.
          o    Click OK and CLOSE the window.

Every planet has a basic population growth rate.  This modified by the
general posperity of that planet and by the population control value.
If a planet has a strong growth rate, a negative population control
value will lower the growth rate rather than decrease the population.
Planets that have a very low level of population will ignore any
negative directives and expand at the normal rate.

  Planets as a rule prefer to increase their native populations and the
leaders's integrity will be affected if there is not a steady
population growth.  On the other hand the planet will soon over
populate if left to expand over a period of years.  This can cause a
massive economic and political burden for the empire if it has to
bolster a planet's flagging resources to support its swollen
population.  Sending an Ark Ship can be a solution to this problem.
(See Create Ark Ship section on page 56.)

Page 45:

                         SUBORDINATE DISPLAY

Click on the Subordinate icon to open the window.

Subordinates are your eyes and ears in an extensive empire.  You need
to trust your subordinates to report any information available to them
and to make decisions in your absence.  Each subordinate has a level of
competence, trustworthiness and charisma.  These levels effect the
subordinate's dealings with the tasks under their command.  For
instance, and Ambassador will need to have a good strong personality
and high charisma to work effectively with other empires' diplomats and
ambassadors.  To keep each individual in your service and reliably
under your influence it is necessary to pay them in cash, give them
promotional awards and Nostrum - the life preserving drug.

     To Promote a Subordinate:

          o    Select the Subordinate Names icon.
          o    Select a subordinate from the list.
          o    Select the Appointments icon.  This lists the three
               appointment categories, select the one required.
          o    A list will be displayed, select the planet, empire or fleet
               required.
          o    If you wish to promote this subordinate then select the
               Awards icon.
          o    Select either MILITARY or CIVILIAN awards and then select a
               specific award from the list.  You can make awards to one
               person from both lists.
          o    Select the MONEY text field and enter the yearly payment you
               wish to give them.
          o    Select the NOSTRUM text field and enter their yearly
               allocation.
                See Nostrum in the Reports section for more details.
          o    Click OK and CLOSE the window.
     For instance, Subordinate Octavius is selected to be the Ambassador
     with the Droygon empire.  He is promoted to Legion Commander and
     awarded the position of Tribune.  He is allocated 12 units of Nostrum
     per year and is paid 12 imperial zongs per a year.

Subordinate's characteristics do change with time and careful promotion.
So someone disloyal can be shown that loyalty is well rewarded.  Awards and
promotions are a way to lead a subordinate in the right direction, as well
as reward those who perform well.

You must have a subordinate as planet leader on each of your planets.  You
must also have a fleet commander for each fleet that you have and an
ambassador for each other empire in the game.

When you conquer a new planet, you will always need a planet leader to rule
over that planet.  There will be an automatic selection of planet leader to
rule over that planet.  There will be an automatic selection of planet
leader as you conquer a planet, although the leader will not be chosen for
his qualities.  (See subordinate control page 29)   There is also automatic
selection of an Ambassador when a new empire is formed.

Fleet commanders have a great influence on the fleets and troops that they
command.  A competent and charismatic leader will inspire his forces to do
well, with both personal appeal and leadership, but also with wise and
skillful decision making.  The planet leader can affect the defence of his
planet when it comes under attack, again a charismatic and competent leader
will be an advantage.

  Slow progress over a period of time will have a better effect on the
subordinate than a short and rapid rise to fame.  A percentage increase
over time is more important than an instant rush of riches, however in
desperate situations a subordinate may respond well to a heavy handed
promotion.

  You would be well advised to choose the subordinates that you want as
planet leaders and Ambassadors after the automatic selection is done.

Page 46:


                                 MILITARY MENU


Click on the Military Menu icon to open the window.

The Military Menu covers all aspects of ship, troop and fleet construction
as well as their deployment and usage.  Ships are built on a deployment
planet, and once constructed, they join the pool of ships on that planet
awaiting inclusion into a fleet.  Troops are created on the planet in a
similar way to ships, except that they join the garrison on that planet
until they are transferred to a fleet.  If a planet is under attack the
garrison will count towards the defence of that planet, however the ships
in the pool will not.

There are a number of restrictions that apply to the military aspects of
the empire.

     o    There can only be one shipbuilding order processed by your empire
          at any one time.
     o    There can only be a certain number of troops recruited at a
          planet in a given year, but there is no limit to the number of
          troops recruited throughout the empire.
     o    Up to TEN fleets can be controlled by each empire.
     o    Up to EIGHTY ships can be built and controlled by each empire.

Select Deployment Planet:
-------------------------

All construction must be completed on the deployment planet.  The default
deployment planet is your home Planet.

     To Select a Deployment Planet:

          o    Select the Planet Icon.
          o    Select a new deployment planet from the list.
          o    Click on OK and CLOSE the window.

Create Spaceship Class:
-----------------------

Ships can be built to any specification, however certain constraints are
placed by the average technology level of your planets.  This affects the
maximum tonnage your ship can have (See Below).

You can create a maximum of twenty different classes of ship.  Use your
allocation wisely.  Once created, you can then build that class of ship
without having to specify the size and weight of its components.

At the start of the game, only the SCOUT class is defined.  When building
ships, you will need to create and name all other classes.  If you have a
Military Adviser, he will automatically create and name the other classes.

______________________________________________________________
|Gross Weight | Description | Base Defence | Min. Tech. Level|
|-------------|-------------|--------------|-----------------|
| 1-100       | Scout       |      1       |        5        |
| 101-200     | Patrol Boat |      2       |       15        |
| 201-300     | Corvette    |      3       |       20        |
| 301-400     | Frigate     |      8       |       40        |
| 401-500     | Heavy Frigat|     10       |       50        |
| 501-600     | Destroyer   |     20       |       60        |
| 601-700     | Cruiser     |     30       |       70        |
| 701-800     | Heavy Cruise|     50       |      100        |
| 801-900     | Battle Cruis|     80       |      120        |
| 901+        | Dreadnought |    100       |      200        |
|_____________|_____________|______________|_________________|

     Table of Ship Class used by the Military Advisor.

Each ship will have a base defence rating which is rated by its tonnage.
This is used with the weight of armor to calculate the defence of the ship.
Defence is equal to the base defence of the ships plus one unit of defence
for each ten units of armor.

The strength of a ship is calculated at one point per ten units of weapons.
The speed of a ship is calculated by the percentage of the engine weight
compared to the gross weight divided by ten.


Page 48:

For instance a 300 unit weight ship that has 100 units of weapons, 50 units
of armor and 100 units of engine requires a minimum average technology
level of 20 and will have :

     100/10 = 10 units of strength
     (50/10)+3 = 8 Units of defence
     ([100/300] x 100) / 10 = 3 units of speed (3.3 rounded down)

     To create a spaceship design:

          o    Select the CREATE SPACESHIP CLASS button.
          o    Select the name field, delete the current class name by
               backspacing though it and enter the name of this class of
               ship.
          o    Set the slider to the Gross Weight that you require.
          o    Set the slider to show the level of Weaponry that you
               require.
          o    Set the slider to show the level of Armor that you
               require.
          o    Set the slider to show the level of Engines that you
               require.
          o    Click on OK and CLOSE the window.

After setting the gross weight, the ranges of the three other areas of the
ship design are set within the limits of the gross weight.  The sliders
show the balance of components.  The data fields on the right side display
the actual value of the components.

The cost and any unused weight is displayed at the bottom of the window.

Create Fleet:
-------------

A fleet is a military or tactical unit consisting of a single ship or group
of ships.  It has a starting deployment planet from which you can transfer
troops to and from the garrison, and ships to and from the planet's pool.
A fleet can also be used to transfer troops and ships to and from their
current location.

     To Create a fleet:

          o    Select the CREATE FLEET button.
          o    Select the name field, delete Unnamed by backspacing through
               it and enter a new fleet name.
          o    Select GET LEADER: this will bring up the subordinate window.
          o    Select the subordinate that you want to command the fleet.
               (See Subordinate display for more information).
          o    Select FLEET COMMANDER as his appointment.
          o    Select UNNAMED fleet.  The fleet that is currently being
               created will always be called unnamed so that you can find
               it on the list.  Until you have OK'd the Create Fleet window
               the fleet is unnamed.
          o    OK the subordinate window and CLOSE it.
          o    Select the GET DEPLOYMENT PLANET button if you wish to
               change the fleet's deployment planet.  (See Select
               Deployment Planet on Page 46)
          o    Click on OK.

          The fleet will be added to the pool and a new Unnamed fleet will
          appear in the text box enabling you to create another new fleet.
          o    CLOSE the Create Fleet window.


Page 50:

Create Troops:
--------------

There are three classes of troops which you can create; infantry, armored
and drop troops.  You can recruit a draft of upto 1% of the deployment
planet population in any given year (the units of population are
significantly greater than that of the military).  By changing the
deployment planet, you can create troops on each of the planets within your
empire.

     To Create Troops:

          o    Select the GET DEPLOYMENT PLANET button if you wish to
               change the troop's planet.  (See Select Deployment Planet).
          o    Select the troop type that you wish to recruit (Infantry,
               Armored, or drop troops).
          o    Set the slider to the strength level required.
          o    Click on OK and CLOSE the Create Troops window.

          If you have not recruited the maximum of troops then you can
          continue selecting all other troop types until the total number
          of troops left is zero.
________________________________________________________________________
| Troop Type |Cost per Strength |Initial Efficiency |Weight to Transport|
|------------|------------------|-------------------|-------------------|
| Infantry   |      1           |       40%         |         3         |
| Armored    |      3           |       50%         |         1         |
| Drop Troops|      5           |       75%         |         0*        |
|____________|__________________|___________________|___________________|

                              Troop Table
*    The drop troops have their own transport and travel as part of a fleet
rather than taking up any space within that fleet.  Drop troops can only be
part of a fleet and can never form without a fleet of at least one ship.

A unit's strength is calculated by multiplying the efficiency of troop type
by the number of troops.

Page 51:
The efficiency of a unit will fall each year the unit is in combat.  In a
turn when troops are dropped onto a planet to invade it, both infantry and
armoured troops have their efficiencies halved for that first year.  Drop
troops are used in the first year of invasion.  They are tough assault
troops who suffer no loss of efficiency in the first year, but later their
efficiency is reduced to that of an infantry unit.


BUILD SHIPS:
------------

You can only process one order for ships within your empire at any given
time.

     To build a number of ships:

          o    Select the GET DEPLOYMENT PLANET button to change the planet
               where the ship order will be processed. (See Select
               Deployment Planet Page 46)
          o    Select the class of the ship you wish to build.
          o    Select the number field.
          o    Enter the number of ships to be built. (Max of 10 at time).
          o    Select BUILD to place the ship building order and CLOSE the
               window.

A class of ship is defined on the Create Spaceship Class menu (see page 47).
Once it is defined, you can build this type of spaceship, without giving
the exact specifications of that ship again.

There is a fixed construction cost associated with every ship built of a
certain class.  Ship building orders also require varying quantities of
certain commodities depending upon the size of the ships being built.
Commodities must be purchased at the current market cost by the Imperial
treasury.  If the demand for the commodity cannot be fulfilled from you
planets, your empire will attempt to buy the commodities from another
empire.

Ship building requires the following commodities per 100 units of gross
weight being built:
__________________________________________________
|  Commodity     | Amount |  Commodity  | Amount |
|----------------|--------|-------------|--------|
| Building Equip |   5    | Heavy Plant |    5   |
| Power Supply   |  10    |Rare Earth El|   10   |
|Space Ship Equip|  25    | Information |   10   |
|Communicat Equip|  15    |Raw Materials|   25   |
| Personnel      |  20    | Heavy Arms  |    5   |
| Computers      |  10    | Robots      |    2   |
|________________|________|_____________|________|

   Once you have placed an order to build ships you cannot place another
   until the first one is complete.  you cannot cancel the order that is
   being built, so committing to building a number os ships is an
   irreversible decision.

Shipbuild Status:
-----------------

This displays the current status of ships under construction.  It also
allows you to pay outstanding costs and to see how long the ships will take
to complete.

     Allocate money to ship building

          o    Enter any cash you wish to allocate towards the total cost
               of construction in the Money to Allocate field.
          o    Click on OK and CLOSE the window.

The Remaining Build Time figure is the estimated construction time for the
ships assuming a full stock of commodities.  If at any time the there is a
shortfall of commodities, the construction time is increased.  The
following table shows the estimated build time for ships by gross weight,
the construction time is reduced by the (Tech level / 5)%.

Page 53:

_____________________________________________________________________
| Gross Weight   Construction time| Gross Weight   Construction time|
|                   in years      |                    in years     |
|---------------------------------|---------------------------------|
|  1 - 100               1        |  501 - 600              8       |
|  101 - 200             2        |  601 - 700             10       |
|  201 - 300             3        |  701 - 800             12       |
|  301 - 400             4        |  801 - 900             14       |
|  401 - 500             6        |  901 +                 16       |
|                                 |                                 |
| +1 per add'l 100 units          |                                 |
|_________________________________|_________________________________|

Fleet Report:
-------------

The fleet report gives details of the various fleets within your empire.

     To view or alter a fleet:

          o    Select the Fleet icon and then select the fleet from the
               list displayed
          o    Select the Pool to Fleet icon to show a list of ships in the
               pool that can be transferred.
          o    Highlight the ships that you want to transfer and press OK
               on the fleet report to transfer the ship(s).
          o    Set the troop slider levels to transfer as many or few of
               each troop type from the garrison to the fleet as required.

          Reducing the number of ships reduces the number of troops able to
          be carried.

          o    Click on OK and CLOSE the window.

     Ships can be transferred from the fleet to the pool in the same way:

          o    Select the Fleet icon and then select a fleet from the list
               displayed
          o    Select the Fleet to Pool icon to list the ships in the fleet
               that can be transferred from the fleet to the pool.
          o    Highlight the ships you want to transfer and press OK.

Page 54:

          o    Set the troop sliders to new levels to transfer troops to or
               from the garrison
          o    Click on OK and CLOSE the window.

A fleet must be at a planet within your empire to transfer its troops or
ships to or from that planet.  For example, you will need to move your
fleet to Mars before transferring troops from Mars of from the fleet.  The
maximum number of troops that can travel on a fleet is determined by the
tonnage of the ships in the fleet.

If you want to take a fleet out of commission that fleet must be empty of
both troops and ships.

     To de-commission a fleet:

          o    Select the Fleet icon and then select a fleet from the list
               displayed
          o    Select the DE-COMMISSION button.

If a fleet is de-commissioned, it will be removed from active service and
the fleet commander retired.

A fleet that has no ships cannot move or have troops transferred to it.

  You may wish to de-commission a fleet, if it is created on a planet with
no ships, or if all its troops and ships have been transfered to another
fleet.

Give Fleet Orders:
------------------

Fleets can be given up to five sets of instructions they will then carry
out.

     To give a fleet its orders:

          o    Select the GIVE FLEET ORDERS button.
          o    Select the Fleet icon.
          o    Select a fleet from the list that appears.
          o    Highlight first empty space on the orders list.

Page 55:

          o    Select an order from the list of Invade, Move To, Hold 1yr
               or Hold 5yr.  (HOLD means hold position for the allocated
                amount of time).
          o    Select the Planets icon (or use the clipboard as explained
               below).
          o    Select the destination planet from the list that appears.

               If you wish to send additional orders, repeat this process,
               by highlighting the next available space on the orders list
               and follow the same steps.  They will be carried out
               sequentially on a yearly basis where applicable.

  If you select MOVE TO or INVADE you must select a destination planet.

          o    Click on OK and CLOSE the window.

     If you wish to use the clipboard to order your fleet, follow these
     instructions:

          o    Open the Clipboard
          o    Instead of selecting the Planets icon, highlight the planet
               name on the clipboard list.
          o    Select the ORDERS button on the clipboard.
          o    To send additional orders repeat this process, by
               highlighting the next available space on the fleet orders
               list and follow the same instructions
          o    Click on OK and CLOSE the Fleet Orders window.

You can alter or change instructions at any time by highlighting and
editing the order concerned.

Page 56:

                            CREATE ARK SHIP

An ark ship is a large and cheap vessel, designed to transport large
numbers of people and commodities between planets.

Click on the Create Ark Ship icon to open the window.

     To create an Ark Ship:

          o    Select the Destination Planet icon.
          o    Select a destination planet from the list that appears.
          o    Select the Source Planet icon.
          o    Select a source planet from the list that appears.
          o    Set the commodities slider to the desired level.

          The cost will rise as the percentage of the planet's commodities
          you want to send increases

          o    Set the population slider to the desired level.

          The cost will rise as the percentage of the planet's population
          you want to send increases.  You can only allocate 20% of the
          source planet's population to be sent on an Ark ship.

          o    Select the Ark Ship To Move Home Planet tick box, if you
               wish to move your home planet to the destination planet.  A
               tick will appear in the box to confirm this order.
          o    Click on OK and CLOSE the Create Ark Ship window.

          The cost falls after the window has been OK'd, because the total
          population and commodity stock has fallen.

There can only be five ark ships in space at any one time.  An ark ship is
a slow vessel which will take longer than your fleets to travel between
source and destination planets.  The number of remaining ark ships is shown
in the window.

  It should be noted that shipping people off to an exciting and new world
is a good method of lowering total population of the planet they leave.

Page 57:


                                CREATE ANTENNA

An antenna is a large communications device similar to a spy satellite.  An
antenna can vary in size according to the technology level of the planet
where it is under construction.  The size of the antenna directly affects
the range of that antenna, and the catchment area around the planet.  A
solar system falling within an antenna's catchment area has a zero
distortion rate applied to all information received from planets within
that system.  Outside the range of the antenna, the distortion level
degrades with distance from the edge of the antenna's maximum range.

Click on the Create Antenna icon to open its window.

     To create an Antenna:

          o    Select the Planet icon.
          o    Select a planet where the antenna will be constructed, from
               the list that appears.
          o    Set the slider to the range you want.
          o    The Solar System Encatchment are shows how many solar
               systems fall within the range of this antenna.
          o    The Cost of the antenna is displayed and varies as the range
               changes.
          o    Click on OK and CLOSE the window.

The technology level of the planet will affect the cost and range of the
antenna.  It will take five years for an antenna to be built.

  It is only necessary to build one antenna within a solar system since the
antenna works on a solar system scale, not a planetary one.  It is best to
build at the highest technology level planet within a solar system, to get
the largest range antenna.


Page 58:

                              REPORTS

Click on the REPORTS icon to open its window.

You can call up reports from any empire or planet, which means you can
monitor all activity in the known galaxy.

Empire Report:
--------------

The empire report allows you to examine the status of your and other
empires.

     To view an empire report:

          o    Select the Empire icon.
          o    Select an empire from the list that appears.

The Imperial treasury balance and total population is then displayed, these
figures are distorted by the percentage shown.  (See the Create Antenna
section for more details on distortion.)

     To view an inter-empire relationship

          o    Select the bottom Empire icon.
          o    Select an empire from the list that appears.

The relationship of the first empire with the second is shown.  This is not
always an equal relationship, with empires regarding each other very
differently.

  To view the relationship between your empire and another, it is necessary
to look at that empire's relationship to you.  This is because your opinion
as a player is your choice and it is not stored within the computer.


Planet Report:
--------------

The planet report is the largest report within the game.  This shows the
status of individual planets, their financial status and the population's
stability.

          o    Select the Planet icon.
          o    Select a planet from the list that appears, scrolling up or
               down if necessary with the up/down arrows.

Page 59:

   
         Each planet has a range of information consisting of:

Planet              The current planet name.

Empire              Which empire the planet belongs to.

Leader              The current leader name.

Solar System        The name of the solar system is in.

Star Type           The type of star affects the ability of the planet to
                    produce commodities.

Planet Type         The type of planet affects the ability of the planet to
                    produce commodities.

Atmosphere          The atmosphere affects the ability of the planet to
                    produce commodities.

Conflict            The level of conflict on this planet.

Wealth              This is the current level of the planet's treasury.

Population          The current population levels.

Antenna             The current range of an antenna on this planet.  If
                    this planet does not have an antenna the range is zero.

Defences            The current level of planet defences.  This is a
                    commodity and can be traded with other planets in the
                    same way as any other commodity.  The planet defences
                    can be increased by Imperial Subsidy, and decreased
                    through planetary bombardment as part of an invasion.

Garrison            The current number of troops in the garrison.  There is
                    no distinction made between the types of troops when
                    they are in the garrison.

Ship Pool Size      The number of ships currently in planet's pool of
ships.

Technology Level    The current technology level of the planet.  The
                    technology level can be slowly increased through an
                    Imperial Subsidy.  The higher the

Page 60:

                    value the better the level of technology the planet
                    has, therefore affecting the cost and potential of
                    anything you wish to construct within the game.  For
                    instance, Antennas are larger and cheaper and ships can
                    be larger and proportionally less expensive with higher
                    technology levels.

Material Infrastructure
                    The current level of the material infrastructure of the
                    planet.  This is a commodity and can be traded to and
                    from the planet.  Material infrastructure can be
                    increased through the Imperial Subsidy and covers
                    services such as road and rail networks, education,
                    hospitals, and health care.  It is the physical
                    backbone of a planet's capacity to sustain life.

Moral Infrastructure
                    Is the people's moral strength and attitude.

Yearly Nostrum Growth
                    Shows the yearly growth of the life-sustaining drug
                    Nostrum.

Distortion          Shows the level of distortion to these reports.

Stability           The stability represents the attitude and political
                    state of the population on this planet.  The higher the
                    value the more volatile and unstable the population.

Integrity           The integrity is a value representing the level of
                    support the leader of the home planet has.  The higher
                    the value, the better the level of belief and support. 
                    The integrity is affected by the actions of the empire.
                    For instance, if empire decolonises a planet then the
                    leader of the home planet is send to be responsible
                    for that action and receives a decrease in integrity.

Loyalty             Current level of Loyalty to the empire ruling the
                    planet.

Page 61:

     To decolonise a planet

          o    Select the planet to be decolonised.
          o    Select the DECOLONISE button.
          o    You will then be prompted to confirm or cancel by selection
               YES or NO.

You can decolonise any planet within your empire, with the exception of your
home planet.  The decolonisation of a planet will move all of the
planetary treasury to the Imperial treasury and will take half of the
population and ships splitting them equally to all planets within the
empire.  All commodities, garrisons, antennas and ships in the pool will be
lost.

NOSTRUM REPORT
--------------

The Nostrum report simply shows you the stock of Nostrum your empire has.
It also shows you the level of Nostrum your empire currently consumes, its
allocation and estimated yearly growth.

Nostrum is a life-preserving drug that is found on certain planets within
the galaxy.  Nostrum is a special chemical compound which can only be
harvested from certain planets and cannot be produced by man-made
chemicals.

Nostrum reduces the effects of ageing when allocated to a subordinate.  The
quantity of Nostrum allocated slows the ageing process as follows:


        Quantity of Nostrum per year Effect
        -----------------------------------
1-10    The subordinate ages a year for every two years that pass.
11-49   The subordinate ages a year for every ten years that pass
50+     The passing of time has no effect on the subordinates age.


Popularity Report
-----------------
The popularity report shows the popularity level of the home planet leader
over the last ten years.  This is shown in graphical form, and is a
percentage representation indicating the popularity of your politics and
actions to date.

Page: 62

                                CLIPBOARD

The clipboard is used to pass information between the map screen and the
main screen.

Click on the CLIPBOARD icon to open its window.

        To use the clipboard:
                o  Use the Map screen to select and send Items to the
                   clipboard.
                o  Select the item from the list in the clipboard
                o  Select REPORT to get a report on that item
                o  Select DELETE to get rid of the highlighted item
                   or DELETE ALL to delete all the items from the
                   clipboard.

        To use the clipboard to order fleets:
                o  Follow the GIVE FLEET ORDERS section (see page 54)
                   until you need to give the fleet a destination planet.
                o  Highlight the planet's name on the list of items in the
                   clipboard.
                o  Select ORDERS.
                o  The planets name will now be transferred to the Give
                   Fleet Orders window.
                o  Click on OK and CLOSE the Fleet Orders window.

Page: 63

                                  NEWS

Click on the NEWS icon to open the window.

The news reports keep you updated on the progress of the galaxy around you.
For instance, confirming that your ships have arrived at their destination,
that your ambassador has received a diplomatic message or that a major
famine has struck on one of your agricultural planets.

News Control
------------
You have two levels of control over the news that you receive.  You can
either stop the present game turn at the end of the next year to receive
news, or you can flag the news to be announced at the end of that chosen
game turn.

        To set news control level
                o  Select either flag or stop.  A tick will appear 
                   in the box to confirm the action.
                o  Click on OK and CLOSE the window

You can select the following news items:

        Hostilities             Reports any aggressive actions, for
                                instance, an invasion or colonisation
                                of a planet.
        Unrest                  Reports any situations of revolt or public
                                unrest, for instance, anarchy and
                                revolution.
        Treaties                Reports any diplomatic alliance news, for
                                instance, an empire responding to an
                                alliance offer.
        Deaths                  Reports of any of your subordinates who
                                have died and their position in the empire.
        Ark Ships               Reports when an ark ship arrives at its
                                destination.

Page: 64

        Disasters               Reports any natural disasters that occur,
                                for instance, a major plague on a planet.
        Ambassador              Reports any ambassadorial activity, for
                                instance, an empire has taken an
                                aggressive stance and is building
                                spaceships.
        Miscellaneous           Reports any other news, for instance, a
                                completed shipbuilding order or an
                                election due in 5 years.
        Relics:                 Reports any relics that are found while
                                colonising a planet, for instance, Gold
                                found on the planet prompting a
                                destabilizing rush.

The game will force certain events onto your news report, it is not
possible to isolate yourself completely from the galaxy around you.  The
news report will also appear when the list is full, to prompt you to read
and delete a report.


News Report
-----------
The news report shows the various items of news that you have received

        To look at news report
                o  Select the item of news by clicking on it
                o  Select GET REPORT to see the item of news in detail
                o  Select DELETE to get rid of the highlighted item of
                   news.
                o  Select DELETE ALL to delete all of the item s of news.


Page: 65

                                  GAME TURN

Click on the GAME TURN icon to open its window.

A game turn effectively carries out all of your commands set in that year
and those that are outstanding.  As such it is a very powerful command and
should only be used once you have checked all of your commands and are
satisfied with them.

You can select the number of years that any given game turn lasts.

        To set game turn length
                o  Click on the text entry box if you want to alter the
                   current length of turn backspace through the existing
                   turn length and enter your own choice  (Up to a
                   maximum of ten years.)
                o  Select NEXT TURN to proceed with the turn

The game turn is stopped if there is any news which requires your
attention.  Selecting NEXT TURN will close all of the other windows.

The current year is displayed counting from the starting year of 2020.  The
game lasts up to one thousand years from this date ending when the date is
3020.


                                       MAP


Click on the MAP icon to move to the Map screen.

This shows you the whole galaxy and from here you can directly select
solar systems, planets and fleets.  The flashing solar system is the one
you have currently selected.


Page: 66

Directional Arrows
------------------
        o  Select either arrow icon to rotate the map to the left or
           right.  Select the same arrow icon again to stop the map
           rotating.

Return to Main Screen
---------------------
        o  This returns you to the main screen.

Zoom
----
        o  Select the solar system by clicking on it directly with the
           cursor on the Map screen.
        o  Select the ZOOM icon to view the selected solar system in
           greater detail.  You can use the arrow icons to rotate the
           zoomed map.  At this level you can select specific planets
           within the solar system.
        o  Select the ZOOM icon again to return to the Map screen.

Empire
------
        o  Select the EMPIRE icon.
        o  This displays a list of all of the empires currently in play.
           Select the empire name in the list to highlight all solar systems
           that that empire has a presence in.  The systems under the
           empire's control will be shown in blue.

Fleet
-----
        o  Select the EMPIRE icon and select an empire from the list
           that appears.
        o  Select the FLEET icon, this lists all of the selected
           empires fleets and highlights them on the map.  You can select
           a fleet as an item from the map directly, then fleet name will
           appear in the item field.

Page: 67

Known Stars
-----------
        o  Select the KNOWN STARS icon.
        o  This highlights in blue all solar systems that an empire
           has a presence in, from owning just one planet to owning the
           whole system.  These will be highlighted in blue to indicate
           ownership.

Antenna
-------
        o  Select the EMPIRE icon and select an empire.
        o  Select the ANTENNA icon, this will display in blue any
           antenna that the selected empire has.  If there is more than one
           antenna in any one solar system, only the largest is shown.  Any
           solar systems within the catchment range of the antennas are
           highlighted.

Send Item to clipboard
----------------------
        o  Select either a planet, fleet or empire.  The item selected
           will appear in the Item field.
        o  Select SEND ITEM TO CLIPBOARD to send this item to the
           clipboard by clicking on the button.

Once an item has been send to the clipboard you can get reports on it and
give orders from within the clipboard menu on the main screen.


-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

The End.  (Game Over Dude -WM)

                  Typed by Eclipse & Winter Mute in July 1990
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